Zagrożone Gatunki Flory Naczyniowej Dolnego Śląska

Zygmunt Kącki (red.)

Roślinność, nieodłączny element krajobrazu, zmienia się coraz szybciej, w miarę intensyfikacji oddziaływania człowieka na środowisko. W ciągu ostatnich dziesięcioleci w przyrodzie Dolnego Śląska obserwuje się zanikanie stanowisk gatunków niegdyś częstych, natomiast inne stały się krytycznie zagrożone lub prawdopodobnie wymarły. Ustępowanie rodzimych elementów flory wymaga podjęcia zabiegów ograniczających ten proces. Pierwszym etapem zmierzającym do tego jest rozpoznanie aktualnych zasobów flory i wskazanie taksonów zagrożonych. Inicjatywa opracowania czerwonej listy Dolnego Śląska zrodziła się w roku 1998 i była realizowana przez pracowników Zakładu Systematyki i Fitosocjologii Instytutu Biologii Roślin. Rezultatem tych działań jest niniejsza praca, będąca dziełem zbiorowym, rezultatem licznych dyskusji i sporów, wymiany informacji oraz wynikiem wspólnego trudu eksploracji terenowych. Jest to niewątpliwie najobszerniejszy zbiór informacji o najnowszych odkryciach oraz synteza synteza dotychczasowej wiedzy o zagrożeniu flory Dolnego Śląsk, przy tworzeniu której zastosowano nowe podejście do oceny zagrożenia gatunków. Zasadniczym celem prezentowanej pracy jest zwrócenie uwagi czytelnika na problem wymierania gatunków. W zamyśle, opracowanie to ma również mobilizowaćdo dalszych badań nad poznaniem różnorodności florystycznej regionu, mającego jakże bogatą tradycję studiów geobotanicznych.

Spis treści

 

1. Czerwona lista roślin naczyniowych Dolnego Śląska

Zygmunt Kącki, Zygmunt Dajdok, Ewa Szczęśniak

9-65


The red list of vascular plants of Lower Silesia

Abstract: The treatise contains evaluation of threats to vascular plant species occurring in Lower Silesia in its contemporary administrative outline. The area measures 19948 sq. km, and within it limits 10 macro regions or their parts are situated. Evaluation categories and criteria recommended by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) were adopted. However, original methodical solutions enabling evaluation of a specific threat within smaller areas were used to.
Endemic taxa were valorised separately and in addition to the category of local threat they were also evaluated in global scale. Hence, endemic taxa have two categories of threat. To the list of plants endangered or rare in Lower Silesia, data on their syntaxonomic affiliation are added, as well as on the status of their protection in Poland. Species included into the Bern Convencion and into the Habitat Directive are also distinguished.
The Red List of Vascular Plants of Lower Silesia includes 640 taxa. 395 of them belong to the group of endangered or extinct, 137 represent plants of lower risk, and 108 are not valorised taxa or with data precluding estimation of the threat. In total, species from the list constitute 33.86% of the flora of Lower Silesian Province. Among them 3.3% are species extinct in their geografical range (EX) or extinct in the region (RE), 5.2% are critically endangered (CR), 4.8% are endangered (EN), while vulnerable (VU) species make 7.6% of the whole flora of the region.
Extinct, endangered and disappearing plant species represent 29 classes of plant communities. Synecological analysis revealed that the most numerous group of endangered plants was composed of taxa from semi-natural communities: meadows and transition mires but also swards and termophilous margins. The extremely strong threat to archeophytes growing in field cultures was confirmed.
The Red List is supplemented by detailed articles, inserted in second part of this work, dealing with various habitat, phytogeographical and taxonomical groups of plants.

Key words: Red List, threatened species, disappearing species, criteria and categories of threat, Lower Silesia



2. Stan populacji i zagrożenia wybranych gatunków naskalnych na Dolnym Śląsku

Krzysztof Świerkosz, Ewa Szczęśniak

69-83


The state of populations and threats to chosen petricolous plant species in Lower Silesia

Abstract: Rare and endangered taxa connected with the class Asplenietea trichomanis in Lower Silesia are restricted to Sudety range, its tectonic foreland and foothills. Characteristics and threats to population of following taxa: Oblong woodsia (Woodsia ilvensis), Black spleenwort (Asplenium adiantum-nigrum), Serpentine spleenwort (Asplenium adulterinum), Cuneate spleenwort (Asplenium cuneifolium), Green spleenwort (Asplenium viride), Killarney fern (Trichomanes speciosum), Hart's-tongue (Phyllitis scolopendrium), Irish saxifrage (Saxifraga decipiens), Hawkweed (Hieracium schmidtii) and Borbas sand rock-cress (Cardaminopsis arenosa subsp. borbasi) are presented.

Key words: threatened and disappearing species, petricolous flora, Asplenium sp., Trichomanes speciosum, Woodsia ilvensis, Phyllitis scolopendrium, Hieracium schmidtii, Cardaminopsis arenosa subsp. borbasi, Lower Silesia, Sudety Mts.



3. Rzadkie i zagrożone gatunki ciepłolubnych muraw na Dolnym Śląsku

Ewa Szczęśniak

85-107


Rare and threatened species of termophilous swards in Lower Silesia

Abstract: The majority of species of thermophilous swards reaches local or geographical range limits in Lower Silesia. Antropopression results in transformation and disappearance of their habitats so the whole group of species connected with swards becomes less numerous, and species frequent in the past become endangered.
The paper contains characteristics of threats to distinguished types of swards. Data on distribution and causes of extinction of 30 species from psammophilous swards, 11 species of pioneer petricolous swards and 45 species of xerothermic swards are presented.
 
Key words: threatened species, vascular plants, thermophilous swards, Lower Silesia 



4. Zagrożone gatunki zbiorowisk trawiastych na Dolnym Śląsku

Krystyna Pender

109-130


Threatened plant species of gramineous communities in Lower Silesia           

Abstract: Causes of dissapearance of meadow species, as well as degrees of their threat in Lower Silesia are presented. Variety of human influence, i.e. degradation of habitats due to drainage, discontinuance of hay-makinkg or pasturage, changes of trophic and light conditions due to intensive sodding, overshadowing of photophilous species with high herbaceous and woody plants and complete change of land usage are the main reasons that may meadows species belong to the category critically endangered (CR) or they do not occure in Lower Silesia any more.

Key words: threat, Red List, meadows, pastures, swards, protection, Lower Silesia, Poland



5. Flora wodna i błotna Dolnego Śląska na tle zagrożeń i możliwości ochrony

Zygmunt Dajdok, Jarosław Procków

131-150


Water- and swamp-flora of Lower Silesia on the background of threats and possibilities of protection

Abstract: The group of plants of water and swampy habitats is nowadays considered to be one of the most thretened in the whole Europe. 87 taxa represent them in the Red List of Lower Silesia. The paper presents chosen species and distribution of their localities within the limits of Lower Silesian province. in the closing part, the most serious, in authors opinion, categories of threats as well as possibilities of reduction of factors causing extinction of water and swampy plants are specified.

Key words: water- and swamp-flora, threatened plant species, Lower Silesia 



6. Zagrożenia flory synantropijnej Dolnego Śląska - problem wymierania archeofitów

Jadwiga Anioł-Kwiatkowska

151-164


Threatened synanthropic flora of Lower Silesia – problem of extinction of archeophytes

Abstract: The paper contains important information on extinct and critically endangered species of synanthropic flora of Lower Silesia. Vulnerable species and these of lower risk are also considered. The majority of taxa is characterised in respect of their geographical distribution, habitat requirements, and their status of protection. Efforts were made to find causes of extinction and decrease of number of localities. The problem of conservation of segetal weeds is also considered.

Key words: synanthropic flora, segetal weeds, archeophytes, threat categories, Lower Silesia, extinct species, critically endangered species, conservation of segetal weeds



7. Zanikanie gatunków leśnych na Dolnym Śląsku

Witold Berdowski

165-174


Disappearance of forest plant species in Lower Silesia

Abstract: Detailed analyses were made for chosen 11 critically endangered or extinct forest species  from two classes: Querco-Fagetea and Vaccinio-Piceetea. It is found that the most frequent causes of disappearance of the discussed plants are: decrease of forest area, changes of land management, and intensive tourism in mountain regions.

Key words: vascular flora, disappearance of species, distribution



8. Gatunki endemiczne, reliktowe i wysokogórskie w Sudetach

Krystyna Pender

175-195


Endemic, relict and alpine species in Sudety Mts.

Abstract: The paper presents state of populations and threats to chosen elements of vascular flora in higher altitudes in Sudety Mts. Among the most threatened species are: endemic taxa of Karkonosze Mts., isolated stenotopic populations of alpine species and glacial relicts occupying specific microhabitats inside post-glacial cirques and also species occurring in Poland in western or eastern Sudety Mts. exclusively.

Key words: alpine flora, extinct species, species of post-glacial cirques in Karkonosze Mts., state of populations, threats 



9. Górskie gatunki z rodzaju Hieracium w Sudetach. Przemiany i zagrożenia

Zbigniew Szeląg

197-215


Alpine species of genus Hieracium in Sudety Mts. Changes and threats

Abstract:Distribution and condition for the occurrence of alpine and subalpine species of the genus Hieracium in the Polish part of Sudety Mts. are presented. 38 species are characterized and among them 24 are endemic to Sudety Mts. The category of threat is proposed for each species, accordingly to IUCN (2000). Plausible threatening factors are characterised.

Key words: Hawkweed (Hieracium), Sudety Mts., conditions of occurrence, changes, threats