Genus Polypodium L. in Poland


Publikacja sfinansowana przez Polskie Towarzystwo Botaniczne

Redaktorzy tomu: Ewa Szczęśniak, Edyta Gola


Recenzenci prac: Edyta Gola, Paweł Marciniuk, Jan Roleček, Adam Rostański, Ewa Szczęśniak, Zbigniew Wilczek, Elżbieta Zenkteler 



spis treści
1. The genus Polypodium L. in Poland – a key to the species determination

Ewa Szczęśniak, Elżbieta Zenkteler, Edyta M. Gola, Iwona Jędrzejczyk


2. Morphology and anatomy of the rhizome of Polypodium ×mantoniae Rothm.

Elżbieta Zenkteler, Iwona Jędrzejczyk


Abstract: Fern rhizome contains some diagnostic features which are seldom utilized to distinguish the species. An attempt is made here to display some differences in the morphology and anatomy of the rhizome between Polypodium ×mantoniae and P. vulgare. Morphometric measurements indicated that the rhizome diameters of P. ×mantoniae were bigger, annual increments were longer, axillary branching more numerous, small and large meristeles within the perforate dictyostele more numerous, and the diameter of the leaf petioles greater than in P. vulgare. Light and fluorescence microscopy analyses were taken into consideration in the assessment of the diversity of each species. Morphological analysis showed that the scales, which cover the apex of a young rhizome, provide the most discernible characters. The scales of P. ×mantoniae were of the spatulate type, broader and more convex than those of P. vulgare. Nuclear DNA content estimated by flow cytometry for P. vulgare and P. ×mantoniae ranged from 30.86 ± 0.06 pg/2C to 39.44 ± 0.25 pg/2C, respectively, and was an initial parameter for identification of those species.

Key words: Manton polypody, nuclear DNA content, Polypodium ×mantoniae, P. vulgare, rhizome structure

3. Preliminary studies on the diversity of the leaf-blade hair and stomata density in the Polypodium vulgare L. complex in Poland

Edyta M. Gola, Ewa Szczęśniak


Abstract: Polypodium vulgare complex in Central Europe consists of three taxa differing in the ploidy level, i.e. P. cambricum (2n), P. vulgare (4n) and P. interjectum (6n). In Poland, only two latter species have been noted, as well as the hybrid between them, P. ×mantoniae (5n). These ferns are morphologically similar and thus their unequivocal identification is based on the measurement of the nuclear DNA content or chromosome counting. An indirect tool for the taxon identification is the annulus structure, namely the number of indurated and basal cells. Here, we present an additional micromorphological feature, which is the presence of hairs at the leaf-blade surface. This feature has not been given in the manuals but it may possibly be useful in a taxon recognition. Further analyses and confirmation of the taxonomic value of this feature are however necessary due to limited material studied.

Key words: Polypodium vulgare, P. interjectum, P. ×mantoniae, leaf micromorphology, hair, ploidy.

4. Occurrence of Polypodium vulgare L. in the Beskid Mały range in the Western Carpathians (S Poland)

Dariusz Tlałka


Abstract: This paper presents current distribution of Polypodium vulgare in Beskid Mały, which is the small and low mountain range in the Western Carpathians, S Poland. Occurrence of the species was previously reported in 64 ATPOL grid squares 2×2 km, and confirmed in 61 squares during research in 2008-2011. The fern occupied rocky habitats, and was mainly observed on rocks and rock debris; in addition it was found in the hill slopes. The majority of plots developed on sandstone; only one was observed in a limestone quarry. Sporadically, P. vulgare was observed in anthropogenic habitats, in stony walls and stone heaps. The species grew also as an epiphyte, but, in spite of favorable conditions, only in one stand, at the trunk of Robinia pseudoacacia. Plots of the fern were rather small, reaching in 70% only up to 5 m2.

Key words: Polypodium vulgare, distribution, Beskid Mały, South Poland

5. Distribution and occurrence conditions of the Polypodium vulgare L. complex in north-eastern Poland

Dan Wołkowycki


Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to analyze distribution and occurrence conditions of ferns belonging to a Polypodium vulgare complex in the Lithuanian Lakeland and the North Podlasie Lowland (NE Poland). The polypodies are known from 121 localities in this area. Their spatial distribution is very uneven. They usually grow in microcoenoses created by mosses and other spore plants, in conditions of very limited competition from flowering plants. Their large concentrations are found in huge forests, where old alder tree-stands on bog habitats, preferred by the ferns of the P. vulgare group, have been preserved. One of the natural causes of clustered distribution of the species may be its tendency to semi-epiphytic growth. The formation of clusters in two spatial scales, confirmed by the applied analyses, may results from the ability of long-distance propagation by spores and then, after a successful colonization of an area, to create a highly densified local metapopulation. Despite the very small size of local populations, and not too many localities recently observed, there is no indication of a risk of species extinction in northeastern Poland.

Key words: distribution, ferns, nearest neighbor, Pteridophyta, spatial pattern

6. Occurrence and diagnostic value of the Polypodium vulgare L. complex in the communities of Asplenietea trichomanis (Br..Bl. in M

Krzysztof Świerkosz


Abstract: In 2009-2011, 298 relevés of plant rocky communities of Asplenietea trichomanis class were collected in the Sudety Mts and their foreland. Polypodium vulgare occurred in 93 relevés, i.e. in about one third of collected material, however the distribution and abundance of the species were not equal in all syntaxonomical units. The species was found in 56% of relevés representing Hypno-Polypodion vulgaris alliance, in 26% of relevés of Asplenion septentrionalis alliance, in the same percentage in Asplenion cuneifolii phytocoenoses, and in less than 10% of all the relevés made on calcareous substrata. Thus, P. vulgare should be considered as a character species of the Androsacetalia vandelii order rather than the Asplenietea trichomanis class as a whole. It is especially abundant in phytocoenoses belonging to the Hypno-Polypodion vulgaris alliance and dominating in Hypno-Polypodietum associations, in which it reaches the highest coverage (10% up to 80%). The results indicate that the most important factors which determine the occurrence of P. vulgare in rocky communities are the type of the geological substrate (non-calcareous rocks) and shade, generally exceeding 60%. Occurrence of Polypodium ×mantoniae has been confirmed so far in the phytocoenoses belonging to the association Asplenio-Polypodietum and Asplenietum cuneifolii. It may occur in ass. Woodsio-Asplenietum septentrionalis as well.

Key words: Polypodium vulgare, Polypodium ×mantoniae, Asplenietea trichomanis, rocky plant communities, Sudety Mts, Central Europe

7. Polypodium vulgare L. in the communities of acidophilous and thermophilous oak forests in the Sudety Mts and their foreland

Kamila Reczyńska


Abstract:In the Sudety Mts and their foreland, Polypodium vulgare is the main component of the rocky plant communities classified within the class Asplenieta trichomanis. In the forest communities, this fern occurs most frequently in the patches of forests of the alliance Tilio platyphyllis-Acerion pseudoplatani. Phytosociological and floristic research, conducted from 2008 to 2011 in acidophilous and thermophilous oak forests of the Sudety Mts and their foreland, revealed that P. vulgare was an element of different importance in the herb layer in these communities. P. vulgare was mostly observed in the stands of oak forests at the altitude above 300 m a.s.l., in west, southwest or south-facing slopes. P. vulgare was recorded mainly in the herb layer of thermophilous oak forests (ass. Sorbo torminalis-Quercetum and oak forests with the occurrence of Silene vulgaris and Galium verum) and acidophilous oak forests with the occurrence of Festuca pallens and Cotoneaster integerrimus developed in extremely xerothermic sites. For the latter community, P. vulgare is a differential species.

Key words:Polypodium vulgare, Quercetea robori-petraeae, Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae, Sudety Mts, SW Poland

8. Ornamental cultivars of the genus Polypodium L.

Elżbieta Zenkteler


Abstract:Ferns, which differ morphologically from other representatives of a given species, are selected, established in culture, and propagated as "cultivars", i.e., cultivated varieties. Their originality raises their attractiveness for commercial purposes. The genus Polypodium has quite seldom been subjected to leaf shape modifications. The pinnatifid blades of the P. cambricum group are often classified as 'Cristatum' (crested frond apex and pinnae), 'Cambricum'’(crested frond apex) and 'Pulcherimum' (deeply dissected pinnae), while fronds of the four groups of P. vulgare are more different and include forms such as: 'Bifidum' (basiscopic pinnules bifurcate), 'Cornubiense'’ (bi- and tri-pinnatifid), 'Cristatum'’(pinnules multiply, forming the crest), and 'Ramosum' (pinnules didymous at the top).

Key words:Polypodium, ornamental cultivars, pinnae partitioning patterns

9. Genus Polypodium L. and Polypodium vulgare L. complex in the collections of Polish botanical gardens

Beata Grabowska, Tomasz Kubala


Abstract: Genus Polypodium is a critical taxon. Depending on the systematic approach, it includes between 6 and 200 species, mainly connected to the intertropical zone. The species found in temperate climates are closely related to each other and make up the collective entity P. vulgare complex, comprising 16 taxa found in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere and 1 species present in Hawaii. Identification of species constituting the complex is based on various criteria, including macro- and micromorphological, karyological and molecular features. The collections of Polish botanical gardens contain 10 species and 10 varieties and cultivars, and 1 natural hybrid. Four of cultivated species and 1 hybrid belong to the P. vulgare complex.

Key words: Polypodium, Polypodium vulgare complex, systematics, geographic distribution, ferns collection, Botanical Gardens

10. Pteridological field trip in the Woliński National Park and its neighborhood

Bartosz Kasperkowicz


11. Polish bibliography of the Polypodium L. genus