Acta Botanica Silesiaca, Monographiae

Acta Botanica Silesiaca, Monographiae (Acta Bot. Siles., Monogr.) jest czasopismem recenzowanym, publikującym prace o charakterze monograficznym, dotyczące szaty roślinnej Śląska.

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vol. 8. (2016) The lichens of Poland. A fourth checklist.

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The lichens of Poland. A fourth checklist

Wiesław Fałtynowicz, Maria Kossowska

ABSTRACT: This catalogue consists of 1642 lichen species and 19 subspecies belonging to 333 genera. All the taxa recorded to date on the Polish territory are listed. For taxa recorded after 2003 and not included to the previous checklist the appropriate reference is given. If present, contemporary taxonomical revisions of individual genera and other groups occurring in Poland are also cited. For 286 taxa, whose names have been changed compared to the previous edition of the checklist, the old names published there are added as synonyms. The index of Polish names of all species is also given.

KEY WORDS: lichens, checklist, Poland


1. Introduction

1. Index of accepted genera

2. Checklist

3. References

4. Index of synonyms

5. Index of Polish names

vol. 7. (2012) Variability and long-term changes in the species composition of M...

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Variability and long-term changes in the species composition of Molinia meadows in Poland: a case study using a large data set from the Polish Vegetation Database 

Zygmunt Kącki

Abstract: The development of electronic databases has made possible the analysis of large databases containing numerous phytosociological relevés. This increases the significance of these relevés as a unique and valuable source of ecological information. Areas of ecology for which the exploration of databases is particularly important include bioindicatoring, dynamics of plant communities, and detecting patterns of variability and change in vegetation over large habitat and temporal gradients. In the present study, the contents of the Polish Vegetation Database pertaining to meadow communities of the alliance Molinion are presented. 1,744 relevés were selected from the database and geographically stratified. They were then randomly resampled and classified in order to determine phytocenotic variability. Changes in species composition of Molinia meadows were determined on the basis of changes in the proportions of different groups of indicator species. These groups were selected on the basis of mowing tolerance, grazing tolerance, forage value, Ellenberg Indicators, and Grime’s ecological strategies. Alpha and beta diversity were evaluated on the basis of diversity indices and the Z Index. The Z Index reflects the degeneration in the species composition of a plant community caused by the presence of geographically or ecologically alien species. The relationship between the indices mentioned were analyzed in temporal, regional and habitat gradients. The analyses encompassed four time periods reflecting changes in the economic and natural environment of Polandduring the last eighty years: 1927 to 1974; 1975 to 1994; 1995 to 2003; and 2004 to 2010. It also comprised four geographical regions representing the entire area of Poland: NW, NE, SW, SE. On the basis of numerical analysis, four associations were identified within the alliance Molinion: Junco acutiflori-Molinietum, Selino carvifoliae-Molinietum, Galio veri-Molinietum and Ranunculo polyanthemi-Filipenduletum vulgaris. The Ranunculo-Filipenduletum had never before been reported in Poland. Species composition in Molinia meadows in Polandhas undergone significant changes over the last eighty years. During the first three time periods, alpha diversity and species richness decreased. During the fourth time period, the species richness increases. The most heterogeneous meadows with the highest levels of beta diversity were found during the third time period. During the time periods analyzed, the main change has been in species composition in respect to the share of different ecological groups of plants. During the fourth time period, the share of woody plants was significantly elevated, as was the share of plants representing high mean EIVs for Continentality and Nutrients. Meadow species associated with mowing and grazing declined or disappeared, while species that are sensitive to mowing and grazing increased, as did species of the competitive strategy. In the present study, it was shown that there were significant changes in species composition of Molinia meadows over the last eighty years chiefly in response to cessation of mowing and grazing. Nevertheless, it was difficult to identify clear changes resulting from a decrease in species richness and diversity in the meadows examined. Molinia meadows are strongly diversified both in terms of spatial distribution and habitat conditions. They are excellent indicators of floristic differences between the geographical regions examined. These studies demonstrate that data contained in databases are an important source of information for analyzing changes in species diversity over temporal and spatial gradients.

Key words: meadows, grassland vegetation, Molinia caerulea, temporary changes, Molinion, Polish Vegetation Database, cluster analysis, species traits


1. Materials and methods
1.1. Data set
1.2. Stratification of data
1.3. Selection of relevés for analysis of variability and distribution of Molinia meadows
1.4. Selection of relevés for analysis of changes in species diversity and regional variability of Molinia meadows
1.5. Selection of relevés with different values for the Z Index
1.6. Classification and determination of diagnostic, constant and dominant species
1.6.1. Determination of diagnostic, constant and dominant species for the alliance Molinion
1.6.2. Determination of diagnostic, constant and dominant species for plant associations
1.6.3. Determination of diagnostic, constant and dominant species for regions and time periods
1.7. Biocenotic indices
1.8. Data analysis
2. Results
2.1. Diagnostic, constant and dominant species of the alliance Molinion
2.2. Classification and variability of the alliance Molinion based on non-stratified data
2.3. Classification and variability of the alliance Molinion based on stratified data
2.3.1. Syntaxonomic diversity, species composition and geographical distribution of distinguished plant associations
2.3.2. Syntaxonomical characteristics of the plant associations
2.4. Ecological characteristics of the plant associations
2.5. Alpha and beta diversity, and ecological variability of Molinia meadows
2.5.1. Species diversity of Molinia meadows
2.5.2. Phytogeographical variability of Molinia meadows
2.6. Species composition of Molinia meadows during the last 80 years
2.7. Differences in species composition of Molinia meadows over the last 80 years
2.8. Variability in species composition over a gradient of changes in habitat requirements and disturbances
3. Discussion
3.1. Syntaxonomic and synchorologic questions
3.2. Ecological characterization of the associations
3.3. Species diversity of Molinia meadows
3.4. Diversity changes of Molinia meadows in the last 80 years
4. Conclusion
5. References

vol. 6 (2011) Plant communities of Scots pine stands in the south-eastern part o...

Plant communities of Scots pine stands in the south-eastern part of the Bory Dolnośląskie forest (SW Poland)

Ewa Stefańska-Krzaczek

 Abstract: This paper presents results of the study on the vegetation associated with managed Scots pine stands. The main objective of the research was to determine the structure of plant communities in relation to forest site types and stages of tree stand development. Scots pine stands in oligotrophic and mesotrophic sites classified as fresh coniferous forest (Bśw) and fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw) were examined. All species were identified and counted in 200 m2 plots in selected forest subsections. Seven plant communities with variants, subvariants, forms and phases were distinguished as a result. Cryptogams (bryophytes and lichens) were crucial components in the identification of the communities. The differentiation of vegetation was associated with site conditions and stand development stages: the influence of the site conditions was reflected in species constancy, the effect of stand dynamics – in species abudance. The habitat conditions varied with the forest site type and the stage of stand development. Species diversity (Shannon Index, Eveness Index) was higher in mesotrophic sites. Communities of the youngest stands had the highest species diversity in both site types. The sequence of plant communities associated with Scots pine stands of different age reflects the dynamic tendencies in the rotation period. Management disturbances affect the course of stand development and determine the structure of the oldest stand communities.

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1. Characteristics of the study area
1.1. Geographical location
1.2. Geological structure and topography
1.3. Soils
1.4. Climatic conditions
1.5. Hydrology
1.6. Forest site types
1.7. Management practices
2. Methods
2.1. Changes in classification of forest sites
2.2. Field studies
2.3. Species identification
2.4. Classification of plots
2.5. Numerical analysis of plant communities
2.6. Species diversity of plant communities
2.7. Habitat conditions in plant communities
3. Results
3.1. Syntaxonomy of the distinguished plant communities
3.2. Characteristics of the plant communities
3.2.1. Communities of stand initiation phase
3.2.2. Communities of thicket and small pole phases
3.2.3. Communities of high pole, maturing and mature stand phases
3.3. Plant communities on the background of forest site types
3.4. Qualitative and quantitative differentiation of species composition of the plant communities
3.4.1. Similarity of communities based on constancy of species
3.4.2. Similarity of communities based on species coverage
3.4.3. Site and age-related differentiation of vegetation
3.5. Species diversity of the plant communities
3.6. Habitat preferences of species in the plant communities
3.6.1. Light intensity
3.6.2. Humidity of substratum
3.6.3. Substratum pH
3.6.4. Fertility of substratum
3.6.5. Differentiation of phytocoenoses under the effect of habitat factors
3.7. Vegetation changes in rotation period of managed pine stands
4. Discussion
4.1. Vegetation and typological units of forest sites
4.2. Vegetation dynamics in rotation period of pine stands
5. Summing up of the results
6. Conclusions
7. References


vol. 5 (2009) Species-area relationships of plant communities and the possibilit...

Species-area relationships of plant communities and the possibility of predicting plant species diversity - a case study in South-Western Poland

Krzysztof Świerkosz

Abstract: The main aim of this study was to consider the possibility of predicting the number of plant species in areas occupied by many different habitat types. A very simple mathematical model was proposed for this purpose. It is based on two fundamental assumptions: first - every single type of community has its own species-area model relationship, second - the number of species common to various types of habitats allometrically depends on the number of habitats and on their quality. In order to test the proposed model, first the species-area relationships for single community types should be counted. Basic data were obtained from phytosociological tables published for SW Poland in 1960-2002. Each set of patches of a plant community, represented in one phytosociological table, was treated as one, compact habitat island of a size comparable to the joint acreage of the patches. The research covered all literature-documented plant communities from SW Poland - in all 750 phytosociological tables including 223 associations and plant communities.

The data on 173 syntaxa compiled in 667 tables were used in the analysis - the remaining tables were represented by insufficient numbers of syntaxa (fewer than five), or by insufficient number of phytosociological releves (three or fewer). The species-area relationship models for 58 types of communities were counted this way.

The next step involved substituting the results of the single SPAR models in the previously proposed

γ-diversity allometric model. The model was tested on 13 different-sized and 18 equal-sized areas in SW Poland using GIS tools. In both cases the differences between the actual and predicted number of plant species does not exceed 12%

The consequences of the obtained results were discussed in the light of the main problems implied in the issue of species-area relationships.

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1. Objectives of this study
2. Modelling the

α and γ-diversity
3. Testing the model
4. Results
5. Discussion
6. Conclusions
7. Bibliography
8. List of sources
Appendix I. Analysis of forest communities      pdf PDF Appendix I 3.93 Mb
Appendix II. Analysis of non-forest communities pdf PDF Appendix II 4.46 Mb
Appendix III. Distribution and vegetation map of nature reserves included in analysis       pdf PDF Appendix III 16.37 Mb   
Appendix IV. Predicting number of species for 13 tested, non-equal-sized areas (nature reserves)      pdf PDF Appendix IV 2.50 Mb
Appendix V. Distribution and vegetation maps of the 1km x 1 km testing plots within the Stołowe Mts.      pdf PDF Appendix V 6.99 Mb
Appendix VI. Predicted number of species for 18 tested, equal-sized areas (Stołowe Mts.)      pdf PDF Appendix VI 785.25 Kb
Appendix VII. List of phytosociological tables of analyzed communities       pdf PDF Appendix VII 276.95 Kb

vol. 4 (2008) Antropogeniczne przemiany bioty porostów Masywu Śnieżnika i Gór Bi...

Antropogeniczne przemiany bioty porostów Masywu Śnieżnika i Gór Bialskich

Katarzyna Szczepańska

 Abstract: The thesis presents the results of research conducted in the years 2002-2006 in the Śnieżnik Massif and Bialskie Mountains (Eastern Sudety Mountains). In the available historical works concerning the researched area 302 lichen species were listed. During the current research 115 of them have not been found again, the existence of 186 has been confirmed and, additionally, 161 species, new for this region, have been discovered. Comparing the historical and contemporary data, an attempt has been made to determine the lichen biota dynamics over ten years. The estimation of changes which have occured in the lichen biota of this area was done by comparing the level of spread (frequency class) of each taxa in three time periods. Additionally, an attempt has been made to define antropogenic reasons and factors which have led to various changes in the lichen biota. What is more, the thesis includes the analysis of habitat requirements of each species, their preferences concerning the humidity and insolation of substrata and the altitude analysis which determined optimum of vertical range for each species. The list of all lichen taxa and non-lichenized fungi along with their current distribution in the Śnieżnik Massif and Bialskie Mountains is presented in the appendix.

Spis treści

1. Ogólna charakterystyka terenu
2. Stan środowiska przyrodniczego
3. Historia badań lichenologicznych
4. Materiał i metody
5. Wyniki
6. Dyskusja i podsumowanie

pdf Aneks_1

pdf Aneks_2

pdf Aneks_3

pdf Aneks_4

pdf Aneks_5

pdf Mapy




vol. 3 (2008) Lichens growing on calcareous rocks in the Polish part of the Sude...

Lichens growing on calcareous rocks in the Polish part of the Sudety Mountains

Maria Kossowska

 Abstract: Paper presents the results of the investigations of the calcicolous lichen flora occuring in the Sudety Mts. The study was carried out in the two most extensive areas with calcareous substrates in the Sudety Mts: the Góry Kaczawskie Mts in the western part of the Sudetes and the Śnieżnik Metamorphic Region in their eastern part, and the two types of localities: natural rock outcrops and quarries. On each locality the entire lichen flora that was directly (saxicolous species) or indirectly (terricolous and muscicolous species) associated with calcareous substrates was analyzed. Of the 129 species currently found in the study area, 84 species were exclusively epilithic, 17 were epilithic, 21 species grew over mosses and 22 taxa were not connected with only one type of substrate. The calcicolous lichen flora of the Western Sudety Mts was significantly richer and more diverse than that of the Eastern Sudetes. In the Góry Kaczawskie Mts a total of 111 calcicolous lichen species were found, whereas in the Śnieżnik Metamorphic Region only 72 species were identified during the study. Only 54 taxa occured in both calcareous areas in the Sudety Mts.

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1. Study area
2. Materials and metods
3. Historical and present-day lichen flora
4. Ecological analysis of the present-day lichen flora
5. Comparison of the calcicolous lichen flora in the Western and Eastern Sudety Mountains
6. Threat to calcicolous lichen flora in the Sudety Mountains
7. Summary and conclusions
8. References
9. Streszczenie
Appendix 1. List of calcicolous lichen species found in the Polish part of the Sudety Mts
Appendix 2. Index of synonyms

vol. 2 (2007) Comprehensive syntaxonomy of Molinion meadows in southwestern Pola...

Comprehensive syntaxonomy of Molinion meadows in southwestern Poland

Zygmunt Kącki

 Abstract: Molinion meadows are rich in species, each with its own ecological requirements. The literature on the syntaxonomy of Molinion meadows is reviewed, and a new classification is presented that conforms to the guidelines contined in the Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature. The classification was constructed on the basis of data on 240 relevés collected from diverse habitats throughout southwestern Poland. The data included information on species composition and abundanc, as well as values for several ecological indices describing habitat conditions such as moisture, trophism, acidity, biodiversity uniformity and level of disturbance. Preliminary comparision of the relevés was carried out using the TWINSPAN software package, which made it possible to construct a hierarchical classification of the collection. The relevés were then classified twice using the NCLAS program of the SYNTAX 5.0 software package, once on the basis of weather particular species were present, and once on the basis of their quantitative abundance. The similarity of the flora between the relevés was calculated using Jaccard formula and its quantitative counterpart, the Ružicki formula. This same colection of relevés was also analyzed using the CANOCO 4 software package. Data were elaborated using De-trended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which made it possible to determine the main vectors of variability in the meadows examined, and to classify the plant communities in accordance with gradients in their habitat. Analysis of the relevés in this study revealed that, in southwestern Poland, the alliance Molinion comprises two associations: Selino-Molinietum and Galio-Molinietum. The association Selino-Molinietum comprised seven sub-associations with fifteen variants. The association Galio-Molinietum comprised three sub-associations with seven variants. The sub-associations and variants differed in terms of species composition and habitat requirement. This was further confirmed by the values for ecological indices. No basis was found to confirm the separate status of the association Junco-Molinietum. Because of their unique natural value, Molinion meadows deserve to be properly maintained and protected.

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General characteristics of Molinion meadows
State of research and syntaxonomis study on Molinion meadows
Validity of the nomenclature of the syntaxa studied
Goals of the study
Study area
Analytic and synthetic studies
Classification of communities in the in the alliance Molinion Koch 1926

vol. 1 (2007) Rozmieszczenie oraz warunki występowania drzew i krzewów w polskie...

Rozmieszczenie oraz warunki występowania drzew i krzewów w polskiej części Sudetów Wschodnich

Piotr Kosiński

Abstract: The study area comprises the Polish parts of the Śnieżnik Massif, the Bialskie Mts. and Złote Mts., and the adjacent parts of the Kłodzko Basin (Kotlina Kłodzka) and the Upper Nysa Kłodzka Graben (Rów Górnej Nysy) (50°06'-50°29'N/16°38'-17°02'E, 620 km2). The current horizontal and vertical distribution of individual tree and shrub species as well as the basic environmental conditions of their occurrence, such as relief, aspect, inclination of surface, and habitat, were characterized. The dynamic tendencies of particular trees and shrub species were estimated. The updated checklist of all spontaneous and more or less naturalized trees and shrubs comprises a total of 217 taxa. Among them, 31 native species and 48 anthropophytes were new for this area and 5 bramble species were found for the first time in Poland. 

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Spis treści

1. Wstęp
2. Charakterystyka fizjograficzna Sudetów Wschodnich
3. Przegląd gatunków
4. Struktura systematyczna dendroflory i frekwencja gatunków
5. Podsumowanie i wnioski




prof. dr hab. Wiesław Fałtynowicz 
dr Ewa Stefańska-Krzaczek 

Komitet redakcyjny:

rof. dr hab. Jadwiga Anioł-Kwiatkowska – Uniwersytet Wrocławski
prof. dr hab. Józef K. Kurowski – Uniwersytet Łódzki
prof. dr hab. Aleksandra Samecka-Cymerman – Uniwersytet Wrocławski
prof. dr hab. Stanisław Wika – Uniwersytet Śląski

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 Przy przygotowywaniu i składaniu prac obowiązują wytyczne czasopisma Acta Botanica Silesiaca.